Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development Questions and Answers Class 10
Q1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
i) its per capita income
ii) its average literacy level
iii) health status of its people
iv) all the above
Ans :- all the above
Q2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
ii) Sri lanka
Ans :- Sri Lanka
Q3. Assume there are four families in a country.The Average per capita income of these families is Rupees 5000.If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, What is the income of the fourth family?
i) Rs 7500
ii) Rs 3000
iii) Rs 2000
iv) Rs 6000
Ans :- Rs 6000
Q4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans :- i. In the World Development Report, 2006, the world bank has used the criterion of average income or per capita income in classifying different countries.
ii. The average income or the per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its population.
b. According to the WAR 2006, countries are classified as mentioned below:
i. Rich countries: Countries with per capita income of rupees 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries.
ii. Low-income Countries: Countries with per capita income of rupees 37,000 or less are called low-income countries.
iii. India comes in the category of law: Income countries because its per capita income in 2004 was just rupees 2800 per annum.
iv. Rich Countries: Rich countries excluding countries in the middle east and certain other countries are generally called developing countries.
C. limitations of the criterion are as mentioned below:
i. It does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. A country may have a more equitable distribution. People may be neither very rich nor extremely poor.
ii. In other countries with the same average income, one person may be extremely rich while others may be very poor. So, the method of average income does not give the correct picture of a Country.
iii. This system hides disparities among people.
Q5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the world bank?
Ans : -a. The UNDP compares countries based on HDI i.e., on the education levels of the people, their health status and per capita income or average income.
b. The human development index used by UNDP is better because it is a wider indicator in which besides per capita income, health and education are also included.
Q6. Why do we use average? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own example related to development.
Ans :- We use averages for comparison between two countries, two people or any two or more things.
b. There are the following limitations to the use of averages:-
i. Averages do not tell us about similarities or differences between two countries or people or things.
ii. By averages oy one aspect income, size etc. In case of country, marks or participation in shorts activities etc. In the case of students, it can be compared. All aspects or achievements are not compared.
iii. As only one aspect is compared, it does not give a true picture of different countries, persons or things. For example – The students differ in height, health, talents and interests. The healthiest student may not be the most intelligent or a topper in studies. Similar is the case in respect of countries or states. A country may be ahead of the other country in one field but may lag behind in the other field. So, the average does not give the correct picture.
Q7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking then Haryana. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare States. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans :- It is correct to stay that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states due to reason as mentioned below :
i. Money cannot buy all the products such as goods and services that you need to live well. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
ii. There cannot be a pollution-free environment in a colony of rich people unless the whole community takes preventive steps.
iii. Sometimes,it is better to have collective services like security for the whole locality than to have individual security for one’s own house. Again a school may be opened for the children of the whole community rather than for one or two children of a rich person.
iv. Kerala has a better human development ranking than Punjab.
v. In Kerala, Infant Mortality Rate is 11 in compare to 49 in Punjab, where the per capita income is much more than in Kerala. It is rupees 26000 whereas, in Kerala, it is Rupees 22800. It is because Kerala has adequate basic health and education facilities.
vi. Similarly, in some states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well and people get rations regularly whereas in some states ration shops do not function properly. In such places, people face shortages of grains that affect their health.
Thus it is clear that the states should not be compared on the basis of per capita income alone.
Q8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. what could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Ans :- The present sources of energy used by the people in India are as given below:
i. Conventional sources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity.
ii. Non-Conventional sources: Solar energy, wind energy and energy produced by using biogas, geothermal, tidal energy and wave energy.
b. Position of energy after 50 years in India- The position of energy in India after about 50 years will not be good due to the reasons as mentioned below:
i. The consumption of non-renewable resources at present is very high in comparison to production and reserves.
ii. The reserves for the world as a whole would last for 43 years.
iii. Countries like India depend on importing oil from abroad because they do not have enough stock of their own.
iv. If the price of oil increases, it becomes a burden on the country’s finances. India has to spend a lot of foreign exchange for importing oil and petroleum and its product. It is putting heavy strains on India’s economic development. However, India has many advantages due to its graphical features.
Q9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans :- Sustainable development refers to a concept of maintaining the present development in such a way that it becomes available to future generations, whatever development is taking place currently must be sustainable enough that it can be used by the generation to come. Over utilisation of non-renewable resources has posed a serious threat of their extinction, which means the future generation will not be able to reap their benefits.
Q10. “The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Ans :- This statement is said by Mahatma Gandhi. It is relevant to the discussion of development as the resources and development both go hand to hand. This statement says that the earth has enough resources, which means that earth has both renewable and
non-renewable resources present to fulfil everyone’s needs;
If we use it in proper management and economical manner. We have to use the resources to keep our environment protected and clear so that there is a balance between the development and use of our resources. But, when this need of a single person becomes greedy then it would not be able to satisfy the greed of even one person.
Q11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans :- few examples of environmental degradation are:
→ Soil erosion → Deforestation → Mining → Throwing soil waste → Industrial waste and polluting land and water → Pollution caused by vehicles → Overuse of coal, petroleum and fossil fuels etc.
Q12. For each of the items given in table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
|TABLE 1.6 SOME DATA REGARDING INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS FOR 2017|
|Country||Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (2011 PPP $)||Life expectancy at birth(2017)||Mean years of schooling of people aged 25 and above(2017)||HDI rank in the world(2018)|
|Sri LankaIndiaMyanmarPakistanNepalBangladesh||11,3266,3535,5675,3312,4713,677||75.568.866.766.670.672.8||10.9 6.4 4.9 5.2 4.9 5.8||76130148150149136|
|Top country||Bottom country|
|Gross National Income in $||Sri Lanka||Nepal|
|Life expectancy at birth||Sri Lanka||Pakistan|
|Literacy rate||Sri Lanka||Myanmar and Nepal|
|HDI Rank||Sri Lanka||Pakistan|
Q13. The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m²) in India. It is based on a survey of various States for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
|State||Male (%)||Female (%)|
(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Ans :- (i) The nutritional level of people in Kerala is higher than the people of both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. The ratio of undernourished people in Kerala is less than in Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) There is enough food present in a country then also around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished because:-
→ A large group of people are poor in our country that they are not able to afford nutritious food (40% of people in our country are undernourished).
→ In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and poor people cannot get basic or cheap food items.
→ In many states, education is not provided properly and people remain uneducated and poor. As such, they are not able to get nutritious food.