Nationalism in India Notes Class 10

Nationalism in India Notes History Class 10

Nationalism:-

Nationalism is a sense of collective belonging among the people developed due to common Identity and shared descent.

The economic and political impact of the First World War on Indians:-

  • The British government increased taxes to cover the cost incurred in the war.
  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
  • During the war, the prices doubled which caused difficulties.
  • The soldiers were forcibly recruited in the villages, causing anger among the people.
  • In 1918-19 and 1920-21, the crop failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute food (shortage of food).

Shortages are accompanied by an influenza epidemic.

12 to 13 million people died.

The Idea of Satyagraha:-

  • The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
  • According to Gandhiji, if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
  • Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

Movements by Gandhi ji before the Non-Cooperation Movement or after coming to India in 1915:-

(i) In 1917 : [ Champaran, Bihar] :-

  • Gandhiji inspired the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
  • Farmers were pressured to plant Indigo ( a blue dye) and the farmers also did not get good money for that.

(ii) In 1917 : [ Kheda , Gujarat] :-

  • Due to crop failure and plague epidemic, peasants of Khera could not pay revenue so they are demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.

(iii) In 1918 : [ Ahmedabad ] :-

  • Organized Satyagraha movement among cotton mill workers, against cotton mill owners.

The Rowlatt Act (1919):-

  • Encouraged by the success of his three moments.
  • The Act gave enormous power to repress political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for 2 years.
  • Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha movement against the Rowlatt Act in 1919 as this law was passed in hurry.
  • Launched hartal on 6th April.
  • Workers supported rallies and went on strike on the railway, and workshops and shops closed down.

On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession.

—> This provided people took violence.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:-

  • On 13 April 1919, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
  • On that day, a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of jallianwala Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures and some came for the annual Baisakhi fair.
  • This ground was closed from all sides.
  • Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
  • General Dyer entered the area and blocked the exit points.
  • After this, his soldiers fired indiscriminately at the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed.
  • General dyer did this to instil a sense of terror in the satyagrahis.

The decision of the Non – Cooperation Khilafat movement:-

  • Mahatma Gandhi felt that no nationwide movement could be conducted without bringing Hindu Muslims closer to each other.
  • Due to the defeat of Ottoman Turkey in the first world war, it was rumoured that a very strict peace treaty would be imposed on the Ottoman emperor.
  • In this connection, Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919, and the Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali brothers discussed joint action with Mahatma Gandhi on this issue.
  • In his book Hind Swaraj, written in 1909, Gandhiji wrote that British rule was established only with the cooperation of Indians.
  • If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
  • At the Congress session in Nagpur in December 1920, all the leaders agreed to this moment and in January 1921 started the Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement.

Beginning of Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement and the impact of the movement in cities { Social Impact}:-

  • The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
  • Thousands of students left schools and colleges.
  • Headmasters and teachers resigned.
  • Lawyers gave up their legal practices.

{ Economic Impact }:-

  • Foreign goods were boycotted.
  • Liquor shops picketed.
  • Foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.

Slowing of movement:-

  • The establishment of alternative Indian institutions was necessary for the success of the moment so that they could be used in place of British institutions.
  • So, students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
  • Khadi cloth was often more expensive and poor people could not afford to buy it. So, they started using cheap foreign clothes made by machines.

Rebellion in the countryside [ Awadh]:-

  • Farmers in the villages were living in a very pathetic condition. During British rule, the zamindars in the villages had imposed too much tax on the farmers.
  • Farmers had to work in their fields without pay.
  • Their leases as tenants were not fixed. So, they used to evict them from the leases at any time.
  • Baba Ramchandra, who had previously worked as an indentured labourer, formed a Kisan Sabha along with Pandit Nehru and started a Movement in the villages.
  • In The villages, the farmers decided to discontinue the nai-dhobi facilities of the landlords.
  • They understood that this movement meant that no taxes were to be paid and the land was to be redistributed among the poor.
  • Therefore, they took the path of violence and looted the land and grain stock of the landlords.

Rebellion in the jungles [Gundem Hills, A.P]:-

  • The tribal people were upset and angry with the British government banning the entry of people into big forests.
  • They revolted when the government forced them to forcibly construct roads.
  • Their leader’s name was Alluri Sitaram Raju, who described himself as an avatar of God.
  • He inspired people to wear khadi and quit alcohol as he was very much influenced by Gandhi’s ideas.
  • The tribals understood the meaning of this moment that the forests are now their own, they have the right over them as before.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked a police station, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj. Alluri Sitaram Raju was hanged in 1924.

Swaraj in the Plantations [Assam]:-

  • Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers refused to obey the order of the officers.
  • They left the plantations and headed home. They believed that everyone would be given land in their own villages.
  • They, however, never reach their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police.

Withdrawal of Non- Cooperation Movement:-

  • In February 1922, a peaceful procession passing through the market at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh turned into a violent confrontation with the police.
  • On hearing about this incident, Gandhiji announced the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Oppose the Simon Commission:-

  • The new government of Britain created a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to study and suggest the constitutional system in India.
  • When the Simon commission reached India in 1928, they were opposed to the slogan’ Simon Go Back’ as there was not a single Indian member in this commission.

1930: Demand for Purna Swaraj:-

  • To pacify the Simon commission’s protest, Lord Irwin was assured to listen to Congress leaders at the round table conference in London.
  • Congress leaders were not satisfied with this proposal.
  • In December 1929, the Lahore session of the Congress under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru accepted the demand for Purna Swaraj and it was decided that on 26 January 1930, an oath of the struggle for Purna Swaraj would be taken.
  • For this reason,26 January is very important in our Indian history.

The Salt movement and Civil Disobedience movement:-

  • On 31 January 1930, Gandhiji wrote a letter of 11 demands to Lord Irwin. This included demands from industrialists to peasants.
  • The most important of these demands was the abolition of the ”salt tax” because salt was an integral part of the food, which the rich and poor people used equally.
  • When his demands were not fulfilled till 11 March 1930, Mahatma Gandhi started the salt march from Sabarmati Ashram with 78 of his trusted volunteers.
  • After travelling 10 miles for 24 days, on 6 April 1930, Gandhiji broke the salt law by going to a place called Dandi.
  • Simultaneously, the Civil Disobedience movement also started.

Gandhi- Irwin Pact:-

  • On 5 March 1931, Gandhiji signed an agreement with Lord Irwin by withdrawing from the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • In this agreement, Gandhiji agreed to participate in the Second Round Table conference in London. Instead, the government agreed to release political prisoners.
  • In December 1931, this conversation broke down and Gandhiji had to return disappointed.
  • Back in India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression, and he started the movement once again.

How the different social classes saw the Civil Disobedience Movement:

Rich Peasants:-

  • Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression in falling prices.
  • As their cash income disappeared, it became difficult for them to pay the government revenue.
  • He actively participated in this moment of Gandhiji to get rid of this high revenue.

 Poor Farmer:-

  • Poor farmers wanted a reduction in revenue.
  • Many of those farmers, who used to cultivate the land by taking land on leaves from the zamindars, wanted the rent of the land to be waived because their cash income was completely exhausted due to the great depression.
  • Therefore, actively participated in this moment of Gandhiji.

Industrialist:-

  • The trade of Indian industrialists began to collapse during the great depression.
  • When they exposed the policies of the British, their business was curbed.
  • They wanted more duties to be levied on foreign goods which would reduce imports.
  • Therefore, they actively participated in this moment of Gandhiji.

Industrial Worker:-

  • Poor industrial labourers associated themselves with this moment for work pay, poor working conditions and boycott of foreign goods.

Women:-

  • Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
  • Many women also went to jail during this movement.
  • They felt that their position in society would be better through this movement. 
  • Therefore, they supported Gandhiji in this movement.

The Limits of Civil Disobedience (1930-1934):-

  • The inclination of the untouchable or the Dalit class was towards the Dalit class movement, so this class showed its indifference towards this moment.
  • Due to the increasing influence of socialism in India, traders and industrialists also showed their indifference towards this moment.
  • Muslim political organizations also showed no warmth in this moment.
  • Industrial workers also stayed away from this moment.
  • After the Gandhi Irwin pact of 1931, the attitude of the peasants was also not full of passion towards this moment.

Poona Pact (1932):-

  • Until 1930, Congress paid no attention to the untouchables.
  • The Congress was feared by the conservative high caste Hindu Sanatan is.
  • Many Dalit leaders wanted a different solution to their community’s problems.
  • Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar formed the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 and demanded a separate constituency in the Second Round Table Conference.
  • In 1932, in the Poona Pact, the problem was solved with a mutual agreement between Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar.

The sense of Collective Belonging:-

  • In the twentieth century, the feeling of nationalism was aroused in the people through various mediums.

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: