NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Nationalism In India Questions and Answers

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Nationalism In India Questions and Answers

Write in brief :

Q1. Explain:

a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?

Answer: The growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement Because Colonisation affected people’s freedom so the sense of exploitation became a common bond for people of the different groups in the country which resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals.

b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

Answer: The First World War created a new economic and political situation which led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes so the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Answer:  The act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt. Through this act, the Government gave vast powers to the police to search for a place and arrest any person without a warrant and hold the trial for two years. Mahatma Gandhi started non-cooperation against this law on 6th April

d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw from the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: Gandhiji withdrew from the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the Chauri Chaura incident. The non-violence movement was converted into violence.

Q2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer: The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.

Q3. Write a newspaper report on:

a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

b) The Simon Commission

Answer :

a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre: On 13th April in the Amritsar, where they celebrate the festival of Baisakhi. A crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend the Fair on the ground of The Jallianwala Bagh. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. Among them, there were women, children and elderly people too, who were all mercilessly killed.

b) The Simon Commission:  British Government appointed the Simon Commission in 1927 to resolve the constitutional deadlock in India. Sir John Simon landed in India on Feb. 1928. It was boycotted by all parties because the seven members of it were all Britishers. All the parties groups and the people boycotted it. The commission met with. strong opposition wherever it went. The people greeted it with the slogan. “Simon go back’. In one such demonstration again Simon commission, at Lahore Lala Lajpat Rai received lathi blows on his head. He later died in 1928. The commission toured the country and submitted its report to the British Government. Their recommendation was “Dyarchy should be abolished and provincial autonomy should be introduced in the provinces.

Discuss

Q1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Answer 

The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban middle-class people of town such as teachers, students, headmasters, traders, lawyers, countryside peasants and tribals, plantation workers of Assam, barbers and washermen.

Tribal people.

Tribal people take part in the non-cooperative movement because most of the tribal people were dependent on forests for their livelihood but under the new Forest Policy, the government had put several restrictions on the people Closing large forest areas for the tribal people and also Forcing the local people to contribute begar. Preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. All these things enraged the hill people. Not only were their livelihoods affected, but they felt their traditional rights were also being denied. That is why these people take part in the non-cooperative movement.

Peasants

The peasants took part in the movement because talukdar and landlords demanded high taxes or rent from peasants. They hoped they would be saved from the oppressive landlords, and they also think that they get a reduction in revenue and an abolition in begar. That is why peasants take part in non-cooperative movements.

Plantation workers in Assam

For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. That is why plantation workers take part in the non-cooperative movement.

Q2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Answer, 

The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because salt was the only thing that was consumed by both the rich and the poor and also Gandhi ji found that salt can be a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. during the salt march, Gandhi ji met a large number of commoners during the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and non-violence. Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to defy the British peacefully. On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. By calmly disobeying the law and producing salt despite government orders, Gandhiji set an example for the entire nation of how to oppose oppressors without resorting to violence. The Civil Disobedience Movement arose as a result of this in 1930.

Q3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Answer 

If I get a chance to participate in the civil disobedience movement (as a woman) that Gandhi Ji started. I felt that by participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement, I could contribute to the nation-building process. So, when Gandhiji called, I couldn’t say no. And, in defiance of my family’s values, I became an active member of the revolution. Participating in Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience Movement transformed me and changed my perspective about myself and my role in society. After doing all these things I really feel proud and thank Gandhiji to gave me a chance to participate in the revolution.  

Q4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Answer

Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because they all have their different opinion.

Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. Many Dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They believed that only political empowerment would resolve their social backwardness whereas Gandhiji believed that separate electorates would further slow down the process of their integration into society.

The Muslim leaders on the other hand asked for separate electorates to safeguard the political interests of the Muslims. In their opinion, the majority of the people were Hindus, and so in the case of joint electorates, the Muslims would have little chance of winning the seats. As such, they would always be at the mercy of the Hindus.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to the population in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab). Negotiations over the question of representation continued, but all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise.

The Congress leaders opposed the policy of the British Government in provoking different groups of people in demanding a separate electorate, They knew well that it was the British Government’s conspiracy to encourage different people to ask for separate electorates because such a policy would weaken the national movement, and prolong Britisher’s stay in India. The Congress leaders were one and all in favour of joint electorates.

Extra Questions : 

Q1. Why was Martial Law imposed in Amritsar?

Answer: Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

Q2.  Why did people gather in Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April 1919?

Answer: A crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair, they also went to the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Being from outside they were unaware of the martial law that was imposed and was killed by General Dyer.

Write in brief :

Q1. Explain:

a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.

Answer: Growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement Because Colonisation affected people’s freedom so the sense of exploitation became a common bond for people of the different groups in the country which resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals.

b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

Answer: The First World War created a new economic and the political situation which led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes so the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Answer:  The act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council on a report of the Sedition Committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt. Through this act, the Government gave vast powers to the police to search for a place and arrest any person without a warrant and hold the trail for two years. Mahatma Gandhi started non-cooperation against this law on 6th April

d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer: Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the Chauri Chaura incident. The non-violence movement was converted into violence.

Q2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Answer: The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.

Q3. Write a newspaper report on:

a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre

b) The Simon Commission

Answer :

a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre: On 13th April in the Amritsar, where the celebrating the festival of Baisakhi. A crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend the Fair in the ground of The Jallianwala Bagh. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi. General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. Among them, there were women, children and elderly people too, who were all mercilessly killed.

b) The Simon Commission:  British Government appointed the Simon Commission in 1927 to resolve the constitutional deadlock in India. Sir John Simon landed in India on Feb. 1928. It was boycotted by all parties because the seven members of it were all Britishers. All the parties groups and the people boycotted it. The commission met with.strong opposition wherever it went. The people greeted it with the slogan. “Simon go back’. In one such demonstration again Simon commission, at Lahore Lala Lajpat Rai received lathi blows on his head. He later died in 1928. The commission toured the country and submitted its report to the British Government. Their recommendation was “Dyarchy should be abolished and provincial autonomy should be introduced in the provinces.

Extra Questions : 

Q1. Why was Martial Law imposed in Amritsar?

Answer: Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter Delhi. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations, so Martial Law was imposed.

Q2.  Why did people gather in Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April 1919?

Answer: A crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair, they also went to the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Being from outside they were unaware of the martial law that was imposed and was killed by General Dyer.

Q3. Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?

Answer: His object was, as he declared, was to ‘produce a moral effect’ and to create in the minds of Satyagrahis feeling of terror and awe.

Q4.  What did British do to rep

Q3. Why did General Dyer fire on innocent people gathered peacefully in Jallianwala Bagh?

Answer: His object was, as he declared, was to ‘produce a moral effect’ and to create in the minds of Satyagrahis feeling of terror and awe.

Q4.  What did British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis?

Answer: Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do Salam to all Sahibs. People were flogged and villages were bombed.

Q5. Unfold the stages of Non-cooperation Movement.

Answer: Began with the surrender of titles that government awarded. Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.

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