NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History in English Medium Print Culture And The Modern World
Write in brief :
Q1. Give reasons for the following:
a) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.
b) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.
c) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century
d) Gandhi said the light for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association.
a) In the 11th century, chinese paper reached Europe via Silk route, Paper made possible the production of manuscripts carefully written by scriber and then in 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer, returned to Italy, alter many years of exploration in China China already had the technology of woodblock printing.
b) Martin Luther was a religious reformer. He wrote Ninety Five Theses, criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg It challenged the Church to debate his ideas. Roman church began keeping an Index of prohibited books. They introduced inquisition, in which heretics, who wrote against any church practices were identified and punished suitably. The Roman Church, troubled by such effects of popular readings and questioning of faith, imposed, severe control over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an index of prohibited books from 1558.
d) Because Mahatma Gandhi ji believed that these are the powerful modes of expression and cultivation of public opinion.
Q2. Write short notes to show what you know about
a) The Gutenberg Press
b) Erasmus’s idea of the printed book
c) The Vernacular Press Act
a) Gutenburg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate. From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. Subsequently he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and
moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.
b) Erasmus was a latin scholar and a catholic reformer. He criticised the excesses of catholocism but kept his distance from Luther, expressing a deep anxiety about printing. He felt that few books may give useful information, but majority of books may be stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandals, irreligious and sedition books which may lead to any kind of rebellion in the public.
c) In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act, was passed modelled in Irish Press Laws. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the Vernacular Press. From then onwards, government kept regular track of the Vernacular newspapers published in different provinces.
Q3. What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:
b) The poor
a) Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways and Women’s reading, therefore increased enormously in middle class homes.
b) Public libraries were set up to expand the access to books. These libraries were mostly located in cities and towns, and at times in prosperous villages.
c) Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of Low Caste’ protest movement, wrote about the injustices in his Gulamgiri. B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswami Naicker wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were read by people all over India.
Extra Questions :
Q1. What were ‘Biliotheque Bleue’?
Answer : In France, Bibliotheque Bleue were low priced small books printed on poor quality paper and bound in cheap blue cover.
Q2. How did printing help thinkers and philosophers?
Answer : The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Rousseau were also widely printed and read. Thus, their ideas about science, reason and rationality found their way into popular literature,
Q3. Who was Mercier?
Answer : Mercier was a novelist in 18th century France who declared, the printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away”.
Q4. How did print popularized the ideas of enlightened thinkers in France?
Answer: Print popularised the ideas of enlightened thinkers. They attacked the sacred authority of the Church and the despotic powers of the state, thus reading the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition
Q5. What did cartoons and caricatures suggest ?
Answer: Cartoons and caricatures typically suggested that the monarchy remained absorbed only in sensual pleasures while the common people suffered immense hardships.