Write in brief :
Q1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
Example from Asia:
The great Indian ocean which is named after India gave birth to the bustling trade of goods
and exchange of culture.
Example from America:
America was discovered by Columbus It was only then the Portuguese and Spanish
entered in America and suppressed the native people of America through their repressive measures.
Q2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
Answer: America was not conquered and colonised by Europeans with the help of superior firepower alone. Germs such as those smallpox helped. Americans had no immunity against them as a result of long isolation.
Once introduced the germs spread deep to the continent decimating whole communities and paving way for conquest. The colonisation of the Americas took place in the mid-16 century.
Q3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following
a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
c) The death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War.
d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
(a) A number of people become jobless many people left their jobs.
(b) Rinderpest arrived in Africa in late 1880. Within 2 years, it spread into a bowl continent reaching the capital town within 5 years.
(c) Reduction in the workforce: most of the killed and injured were men of working age.
New social setups: the entire socialists where we organised for war as men went to battle women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men wear expected to do.
(d) Indian export between 1928 to 1934 and the price of wheat fell by 50%.
(e) In Asian countries, the raw material was available at a much lower price and Most of these countries have budgets of low cost for setting up Industries of MNCs. The workers in these countries take lower wages due to the problems of unemployment.
Q4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Answer: Following are the two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability :
• Faster railways and large ships helped in transporting food quickly over a long distance.
• Refrigerated ships helped in the transport of perishable food more quickly.
Q5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?
Answer: The international monetary system is the system linking national currencies and monetary systems. The Bretton Woods system was based on fixed exchange rates. In this system, the national currencies.
For example, the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The dollar itself was anchored to gold at a fixed price of $ 35 per ounce of gold.
Q6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
My dear family,
Through this letter, I want to tell you about my life as an indentured labourer in Jamaica far from our home.
I hope all of you are fine there. I have been hired by the colonizers under a contract stating that I could return to India after working for five years at a plantation. However, the contract was a fraud and these are not allowing me to return.
I joined this job in the hope to escape poverty and oppression but the condition of living and working is very harsh here and He treats us like animals since we are a minority and thus easy targets for his wrath. Most of the workers here belong to Bihar, central India and the dry regions of Tamil Nadu.
Accidents are common in the sugar plantations in Jamaica. One time I saw a worker burnt alive when the liquid sugar we were boiling accidentally spilt on him. There are few legal rights given to us. We don’t even have any rights to speak or to express our dissatisfaction about the working conditions.
Whenever we do not attend our work, we are liable to go to jail. There is a lot of work at the plantations with a heavy workload and less time to finish it all.
In case of unsatisfactory work, my wages are cut. That time I felt very bad because after doing so much hard work we get less wages. And sometimes it feels like hell. I think if there is hell on earth, it certainly is this. I know my writing will cause you anguish but rest assured there is talk of new laws underway to protect labourers like us. Thus, this situation will pass soon.
Your Loving son,
Q7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are the flow of trade, the flow of labour and the flow of capital or investments.
1. Flow of trade: mean trade in goods such as cloth or wheat. India was involved in trade relations since ancient times. It exported textiles and spices in return for gold and silver from Europe.
Fine cotton was produced in India and was exported to Europe. With industrialization, British cotton manufacturing began to expand, and industrialists pressured the government to restrict cotton imports and protect local industries.
As a result of the tariffs that were imposed on cloth imports, the inflow of fine Indian Cotton began to decline.
2. The flow of labour: In the field of labour, indentured labour was provided for mines, plantations and factories abroad, in huge numbers, in the nineteenth century.
This was an instrument of colonial domination by the British. Indentured labourers were hired under contacts who promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation.
The living conditions were harsh, and the labourers had little protection from the law or from it as they had few rights.
3. Flow of capital: short-term and long-term loans to and from other nations. During British rule in India, many Europeans established their factories in India.
Also, many Indian traders ventured beyond European colonies and they established flourishing emporia at busy ports worldwide, selling local and imported curios to tourists.
Q8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.
The Great Depression was a result of the following factor:
⇒ Agriculture overproduction was a major problem. As a result, agricultural prices fell. As prices fell, so did agricultural incomes. This increased the volume of goods in the market. The situation got worse in the market. Prices fell down further. Farm produce began to rot due to the lack of buyers.
⇒ Failure of the banks: Some of the banks closed down when people withdrew all their assets, leaving them unable to invest. Some banks called back loans taken from them at the same dollar rate in spite of the falling value of dollars. It was worsened by the British change in policy to value the pound at the pre-war value.
⇒ Prosperity in the USA during the 1920s created a cycle of higher employment and incomes. It led to a rise in consumption and demand. More investment and more employment created tendencies of speculation which led to the Great Depression of 1929 up to the mid-1930s. The stock market crashed in 1929. It created panic among investors and depositors who stopped investing and depositing. As a result, it created a cycle of depreciation.
⇒ Stock market crashed in 1929. It created panic among investors and depositors who stopped investing and depositing. As a result, it created a cycle of depreciation.
Q9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?
When the Second World War finished, many parts of the world were still under European colonial rule, and it took so much to come out of European colonial rule like it took two decades for the colonies in Asia and Africa to become free independent nations.
After so much struggle when they became free, they faced so many other problems such as poverty, lack of resources, etc. Economies and societies were handicapped because they were under colonial rule for long periods. Therefore these colonies organized themselves as a group called G-77 countries is an abbreviation for the group of 77 countries that demanded a new international economic order (NIEO); a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, without being victims of neo-colonialism, that is, a new form of colonialism in trade practised by the former colonial powers.
The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank) because these two institutions were designed to meet the financial needs of industrial and developed countries, and did nothing for the economic growth of former colonies and developing nations.
Extra Questions :
Q1. What were ‘Corn Laws’?
Answer: When the British government restricted the import of corn, as the demand for agricultural products went up. pushing up food grain prices. Under the pressure of landowners, government forms laws called Corn Laws’, restricting the import of corn.
Q2. Who forced the government of Britain to abolish corn laws?
Answer: Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.
Q3. What was the effect of the abolition of corn laws?
Answer: British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown
Out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
Q4. What is Rinderpest?
Answer: Rinderpest was a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague which had terrifying
impact on the livelihood of people and the local economy of Africa in the 1890s.
Q5. What was the main problem for Europeans to establish mines and plantation
Answer: Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals. But there was an unexpected problem of a shortage of labour willing to work for wages.