NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History in English Medium The rise of Nationalism in Europe
Q1. Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
a) Guiseppe Mazzini: was the Italian revolutionary and born in 1807 in Genoa. When he was young man of 24 he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in liguria.
b) Count Camillo de Cavour : who was the chief minister of Piedmont and he let the movement of unify the reason of Italy. He was neither a Revolutionary nor democratic.
c) The Greek war of independence : It is a type of event in which the mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated Elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The Spark of Green revolution began in 1821.
d) Frankfurt parliament : In the German regions a large number of political associations
whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an All-German National Assembly. On 18th May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement. In these movements, a large number of women participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied right to vote during the elections of Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament convened in the church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitor’s gallery.
Q2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer: Following was the steps the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people are:
• It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
• Collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.
• The emphasis on Vernacular languages and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were
Q3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Answer : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories for French and the German nation respectively.
They were portrayed that they gave the abstract idea of a nation in a concrete form and they would establish a sense of nationality in the citizens of French and German countries.
Q4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
The middle-class Germans in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state. Prussian Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck, with the help of the army and bureaucracy, carried out the task
of unification. Three wars over seven years with Austria Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. On 18 January 1871, the Prussian king, Kaiser William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony
held at Versailles in the presence of important officials army representatives and Ottovon Bismarck.
Q5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more
efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Answer : The four provisions of the Napoleon Code, 1804 was:
It removed all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. Abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. Napoleon removed the guild restrictions from the towns. He laid stress on infrastructure i.e. transportation, communication and banking system.
Extra Questions :
Q1. What were the effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 ?
Answer : The effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 was :
(I) The Bourbon dynasty which was restored in 1815 was overthrown by liberal revolutionaries
(II) A constitutional monarchy was installed with Louis Phillipe as its head.
(III) An uprising was seen in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United kingdom of Netherlands.
Q2. Write a short note on Duke Metternich.
Answer : In 1815, representatives of the European powers Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
Q3. What was the mission of French revolutionaries after French revolution?
Answer : The revolutionaries declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and to help.other people of Europe to become nations.
Q4. What difference Napoleon made after returning to monarchy?
Answer : Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy
in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary
principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
Q5. What benefits were given in the Napoleonic Code:
Answer : Napoleonic Code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
Q6. What benefits business man and small scale producers got from Napoleonic trade?
Answer: Businessmen and small scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise
that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.