NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 The rise of Nationalism in Europe Questions and Answers

The rise of Nationalism in Europe Questions and Answers Class 10

Q1. Write a note on:

a) Guiseppe Mazzini

b) Count Camillo de Cavour

c) The Greek war of independence

d) Frankfurt parliament

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

Answer : 

a) Guiseppe Mazzini: was the Italian revolutionary born in 1807 in Genoa. When he was a young man of 24 he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.

b) Count Camillo de Cavour: who was the chief minister of Piedmont and he led the movement of unifying the reason of Italy. He was neither a Revolutionary nor a democratic.

c) The Greek war of independence:  It is a type of event in which mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated Elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The Spark of Green revolution began in 1821.

d) Frankfurt parliament: In the German regions a large number of political associations
whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an All-German National Assembly? On 18th May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement. In these movements, a large number of women participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied the right to vote during the elections of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament convened in the church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitor’s gallery.

Q2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer: Following were the steps the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people are:

• It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.

• Collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building.

• The emphasis on Vernacular languages and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were
mostly illiterate.

Q3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer : Marianne and Germania were the female allegories for French and the German nation respectively.

They were portrayed that they gave the abstract idea of a nation in a concrete form and they would establish a sense of nationality in the citizens of French and German countries.

Q4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Answer : 

The middle-class Germans in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state. Prussian Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck, with the help of the army and bureaucracy, carried out the task
of unification. Three wars over seven years with Austria Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. On 18 January 1871, the Prussian king, Kaiser William I was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony
held at Versailles in the presence of important officials army representatives and Ottovon Bismarck.

Q5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more
efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Answer : The four provisions of the Napoleon Code, 1804 was:

It removed all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. Abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. Napoleon removed the guild restrictions from the towns. He laid stress on infrastructure i.e. transportation, communication and banking system.

Discuss

Q1 Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Answer:

Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless continued to inspire liberals. One of the major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.

In the year 1848, parallel to the revolts of the poor, another revolution was happening underway.  Led by the educated middle classes,  the unemployed, the starving peasants and workers in many European countries experienced this revolution of the liberals. Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.

In other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist – such as Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.

They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution.

The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were:

⇒ Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification. They wanted the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.

⇒ Socially, they wanted to rid society of its class-based partialities and birth rights. Serfdom and bonded labour had to be abolished.

⇒Economically, they wanted freedom of markets and the right to property. Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.

Q2 Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Answer:

Languages.

Language played a very important role. After the Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools, and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. The Clergy in Poland began using language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instructions. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

Folk songs, Folk dances, Folk poetry.

Folk songs, dances and poetry contributed to popularising the spirit of nationalism and patriotic fervour in Europe. Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important for building a national consciousness. Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk culture enabled nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and diverse audience. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularised the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.  

Romanticism

Romanticism is a cultural movement in Europe which aimed to develop national unity. By creating a feeling, a shared common history and heritage. It had an emphasis on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings which shape and express the nationalist sentiments. European poets and artists started promoting nationalism to support Greeks in their struggle to create a national identity.

Q3.Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Answer:

Germany.

Unification of Germany with the help of the Army: In 1848, an attempt was made to unite different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. However, this liberal initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, who were supported by the large landowners of Prussia. Thereafter, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy in the process. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

Italy.

In the Italian region, during the 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to establish the unitary Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.

Unification with the help of the army: After the failure of the revolutions, the process of German and Italian. unification was continued by the aristocracy and the army. Germany was united by the Prussian chief minister Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. The German empire was proclaimed in 1871.

The Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont played a role similar to that played by Prussia. Count Camillo de Cavour (the Chief Minister) led the movement to unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy with the help of the army and an alliance with France. The regions annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation was proclaimed in 1861. The papal states joined in 1870.

Q4.How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Answer:

⇒In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.i The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones-such as English Welsh Scot or Irish

⇒The primary identities of people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.

⇒The Act of Union between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.

⇒Scottish people were forbidden from speaking their Gaelic language and from wearing their national dress. Many were driven out of their homeland.

⇒Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the UK in 1801. This was achieved by the English helping the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over the Catholics.

⇒The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God save our Noble King) and the English language were actively promoted, and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.

Q5.Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Answer:

1. It was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro who were broadly known as Slavs.

2. The Pan-Slavism movement was one of the most important reasons for the emergence of nationalist tensions in the Balkans. because the Pan-Slavism movement spread rapidly in this region and the rebellion fought against the ottoman empire (mainly the Muslim ottoman empire) the rationalist thought that they fought against the Muslim rulers because they want to gain their long-lost independence.

3. Involvement of European countries mainly Britain, France, and Russia created an explosive condition in the Balkan region because they wanted to capture the Territory from this region and create explosive conditions in this region and as result, the 1st World War began.

Extra Questions :

Q1. What were the effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 ?

Answer : The effects of revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830 was :

(I) The Bourbon dynasty which was restored in 1815 was overthrown by liberal revolutionaries

(II) A constitutional monarchy was installed with Louis Phillipe as its head.

(III) An uprising was seen in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United kingdom of Netherlands.

Q2. Write a short note on Duke Metternich.

Answer : In 1815, representatives of the European powers Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.

Q3. What was the mission of French revolutionaries after French revolution?

Answer :  The revolutionaries declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and to help.other people of Europe to become nations.

Q4.  What difference Napoleon made after returning to monarchy?

Answer : Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy
in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary
principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

Q5. What benefits were given in the Napoleonic Code:

Answer : Napoleonic Code did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.

Q6.  What benefits business man and small scale producers got from Napoleonic trade?

Answer: Businessmen and small scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise
that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

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