NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History in English Medium The Age Of Industrialisation Questions and Answers
Write in brief :
Q1. Explain the following:
a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing
peasants and artisans within the villages.
c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Because the women were depended on hand spinning so they fill peril from the new machine.
(b) Because the demand for goods the expansion of world trade was increased. The colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand and the town producers failed to produce the required quantity.
(c) Because the European companies gradually gained power in trade with The India and they secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade.
(d) Because the eliminate the existence of traders and brokers and establish a direct control over the weavers and the ensure regular supply of fine silk and cotton textiles.
Q2. Write True or False against each statement.
a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their
Q3. Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Answer: Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market, which was not based on factories. This phase of industrialisation is called proto industrialisation.
Q1. Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Sol. In the 19th century, some British industrialists of Europe preferred hand labor over machines because of these following things.
⇒New technologies and machines were expensive,and new technologies were not properly tested, ineffective and difficult to repair and repairing them was an expensive affair. Also it was very hard to repair
⇒labor was available at low wages at that period of time because Poor peasants and migrants moved to cities in large numbers in search of jobs. They need jobs, that’s why they don’t demand high wages and start working for low wages.
⇒In seasonal industries, where production fluctuated with the seasons, industrialists usually preferred hand labor, employing workers only for the season, when it was needed.
⇒Market demands of a variety of design and color and specific types of products required in the market could not be produced by the machines available at that time. In the mid-nineteenth century, Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers and 45 kinds of axes were produced, these required human skills and not mechanical technology.
⇒In the Victorian age, the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made by hand not by machine because they needed a large amount of labor.
Q2. How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Sol. The East India Company adopted so many steps to ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles and these are some steps of them.
⇒The East India Company procured regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers by creating a system of monopolies.
⇒Under this system, the company would grant a monopoly to a single merchant for the purchase of a particular good from a particular region. This merchant would then be responsible for supplying the company with that good.
⇒They developed a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk goods. This system forced the sale at a price dictated by the company. By giving the weavers a loan, the company tied the weavers with them.
Q3. Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Sol. Industrial production in India increased during the First World War due to the following reasons
Cotton is a soft, white, downy fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. The cotton plant is a shrub that is a member of the mallow family, which includes hollyhocks, okra, and cacao. The plant is thought to have originated in India or the region that is now Pakistan. Cotton was cultivated in the Indus Valley by 4000 BCE and was used to make clothing and other objects.
Cotton was introduced to Britain by the Romans, who brought it with them when they invaded in the first century CE. The Romans used cotton to make cloth and ropes. After the Romans left Britain, the use of cotton declined. It was not until the eleventh century that cotton began to be used again in Britain.
During the Industrial Revolution, cotton became an important part of the British economy. The invention of the spinning jenny and the power loom in the eighteenth century made it possible to mass-produce cotton cloth. The cotton industry was centered in the north of England, in the cities of Manchester and Leeds.
Today, cotton is grown in many parts of the world, including the United States, India, China, and Africa. Britain is no longer a major producer of cotton
Q4. Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Sol. The following inventions in 18th century England (given in chronological order) are important milestones in the history of cotton.
⇒During the First World War, industrial production in India increased due to the demand for military supplies from the British government. India was a major supplier of military goods to the British Empire, and the increase in demand led to an increase in industrial production.
⇒The war also led to the development of new industries in India, such as the production of munitions and aircraft.
⇒The British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army; thus, Manchester imports into India declined.
⇒Also the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply the war needs like – jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle, etc.
⇒The increased demands of a variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and old ones increased their production.
⇒Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
⇒At the end of the first world war, the First World War gave a boost to Indian industries.
Extra Questions :
Q1. What were trade guilds’?
Answer: These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.
Q2. Why did merchants turn to countryside?
Answer: Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly rights to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So, they turned to the countryside.
Q3. Who is a ‘Stapler and a fuller’?
Answer: (i) A person who staples or sorts wool according to its fibre is called a stapler
(ii) A person who feels: That is gathered cloth by pleating is called a fuller
Q4. How did income from proto-industrial production supplement the shrinking income of small farmers?
Answer: Many farmers had tiny plots which could not provide work for all members of the household. So, merchants offered advances to produce goods for them. Peasants agreed as by working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots t0o.
Q5. Who created the cotton mill?
Answer: Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. So, now the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill.